Antiviral activities of chlorogenic acid (Changsha Staherb)
Chlorogenic acid (Changsha Staherb) compounds have strong inhibitory effects on a variety of viruses and bacteria, such as influenza A virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus  , etc.
In vitro tests showed that chlorogenic acid (Changsha Staherb) has a strong binding ability with the ceramidase (NA) of the influenza A virus, so it can inhibit the virus from entering the host cell and the release of the progeny particles.
When the influenza virus invades the human body, the hemagglutinin (HA) on the surface of the virus opens the cell membrane like a key  (i.e. the spike on the surface of the virus), thus entering the host cell, and then opens the replication and transcription of the virus RNA and protein.
After replication, RNA and protein assemble into new influenza virus particles, which highlight the host cell in the form of budding, and escape through the catalytic action of neuraminidase (NA) to release the binding with the host cell, further infecting more cells.